BlueWillow’s NanoVax® technology platform utilizes a novel oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant to enable intranasal vaccines for challenging diseases and intranasal immunotherapy (INIT) for food allergies.
About Our NanoVax® Adjuvant Technology
BlueWillow’s vaccine technology incorporates nano-scale droplets that are manufactured at an average size of 400–500 nanometers to deliver and adjuvant a broad spectrum of vaccines. The NE adjuvant:
- Enables IN, IM, or SQ administration
- Adjuvants multiple antigen types, including recombinant proteins, attenuated viruses, whole pathogens and other antigens
- Stimulates a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response
- Elicits IL17 for mucosal protection following IN administration1
- Has inherent antimicrobial activity in vitro, and thereby can convert live pathogens into highly effective split vaccines
When used with intranasal vaccination, the NE adjuvant elicits both mucosal and systemic immunity. The technology is therefore uniquely suited to enable vaccines for both respiratory and sexually transmitted infections, which involve pathogens that enter the body across mucosal surfaces. The mucosal immunity elicited by NE vaccines provides protection against these infections at their port of entry, and has demonstrated the potential to reduce carriage of the associated pathogen.
How Do Intranasal NE Vaccines Work?
NE vaccines can be applied intranasally, using either a dropper or a sprayer device. As shown in the figure below, the vaccine droplets readily permeate the nasal tissue, which is rich in immune-presenting cells. Dendritic cells sample the vaccine at the nasal mucosa, and carry the antigen back to the immune system to elicit both a mucosal and a systemic response.2 Intranasal NE vaccines have been shown to be immunogenic, safe and well tolerated in Phase 1 clinical trials.
Studies Conducted to Date
BlueWillow Biologics has conducted numerous vaccine studies demonstrating the key attributes of the NE adjuvant, encompassing several diseases and animal models. A selection of studies completed to date is summarized below:
|Seasonal Flu:||Fluzone®, Fluvirin®
βPL-H3N2, NE-split H3N2
|Mice, rabbits, ferrets, man||IN, IM, SQ||Immunogenicity, HAI, protection against challenge|
|RSV:||NE-split RSV, F protein||Mice, cotton rats, NHP’s||IN, IM||Immunogenicity, neutralizing antibodies, protection against challenge|
|Anthrax:||rPA||Mice, guinea pigs, rabbits||IN, IM||Immunogenicity, neutralizing antibodies, protection against challenge|
|Pandemic Flu:||rHA (H5)||Mice, ferrets||IN, IM, SQ||Immunogenicity, HAI, protection against challenge|
|Pertussis:||aP||Rats, baboons||IN||Immunogenicity, protection against challenge|
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
|HSV-2:||gD2, NE-split HSV-2||Guinea pigs||IN, IM||Immunogenicity, neutralizing antibodies, protection against challenge|
|Chlamydia:||MOMP, others||Mice||IN||Immunogenicity, protection against challenge|
|HIV:||Gp120||Mice||IN, IM||Immunogenicity, neutralizing antibodies, vaginal IgG & IgA|
1 Immunol. 2010; 30(2): 189-199. “Induction of Th17 Cellular Immunity With a Novel Nanoemulsion Adjuvant”
2 Eur. J. Immunol. 2012. 42: 1-14; “Nanoemulsion mucosal adjuvant uniquely activates cytokine production by nasal ciliated epithelium and induces dendritic cell trafficking”